Religious concepts and practices provide people with a framework for organizing their values and behaviors. This framework usually involves some belief in a higher power or spirits and some code of conduct that dictates how people should behave within their communities. Religions also have a range of rituals that are meant to bring believers together and encourage them to share their values and beliefs with each other. Depending on how they are used, religions can reduce the effects of stressful life events such as divorce or death and also help people overcome negative emotions like depression.
Many scholars have tried to limit the meaning of religion to some kind of intellectual exercise or to identify it with ritual or ethical conduct. However, they have failed to recognize that religion is more than just a mental state or a collection of beliefs. Religion evokes a range of emotions and affective responses that are very difficult to pin down. It can include the recognition of dependence on God, the persuasion that it is possible to achieve friendly and beneficent communion with Him, the fear of being condemned by Him or the desire for forgiveness, and even love, when the contemplation of His goodness and excellence provokes feelings of adoration.
Some scholars have criticized the idea of religion as an object-oriented concept and instead proposed that it be defined functionally as those concerns that generate social solidarity or offer orientation in life. This approach is influenced by the work of Durkheim and of Paul Tillich, who define religion as whatever dominant concerns organize a person’s values. However, this approach raises some philosophical issues.